What causes tooth pain?

Tooth pain (gigi) occurs from inflammation in the central part of the tooth known as pulp. The pulp is composed of nerve endings which are very sensitive to pain sensation. Pulp inflammation or pulpitis may be caused by various causes like trauma and infection.

Causes Of Tooth Pain

1.Sensitive Teeth

In healthy teeth there will be a layer of enamel which protects the nerves. The layer of enamel will reduce over and thinning gradually. When the middle layer of your tooth is exposed, food and water will reach your nerve endings. Hence the teeth will become more sensitive and trigger pain. If you brush your teeth too often and roughly, it will damage your gums and teeth.

2.Damaged Tooth

Everyday your teeth will be exposed to the bacteria, but it can be cleaned away if you brush your teeth. These bacterias will produce acid and cause formation of cavities in the enamel of teeth. Sometimes you might have a crack in a tooth which can expose the sensitive inner parts..

A cavity or a crack can cause sharp pain and make your mouth sensitive when you are chewing and biting foods. If left untreated, the damage becomes more serious and causes other complications.

A cavity in a tooth or crack can let bacteria spread into the pulp of the teeth. The pulp can become infected, hence leading to the formation of pus called an abscess. Later on the infection will spread to tissue and bone,

3.Excessive Cold Or Heat Exposure

Tooth sensitivity is caused by the nerves that are exposed in your teeth due to thinning of the outer layer. When you drink or eat something with excessive cold or heat, it might  cause you to feel a sudden or sharp pain.

4.Enamel Or Dentin Erosion

As the age increases, most adults will experience dentin hypersensitivity which causes them to feel discomfort during mastication. This kind of sensitivity is predisposed by taking a highly acidic diet and cleaning teeth with a bad quality of toothbrush. Thus, the enamel that coats and protects your teeth begins to wear away. Eventually it leads to sharp pain and stabbing pain which makes you feel uncomfortable.

5.Tooth decay (cavity)

Tooth decay, also a common problem which causes someone to experience tooth pain. In other view, it is also referred to as a cavity. Tooth decay might begin on the sides or tops of the tooth enamel and sometimes it happens without being noticed. So you need to brush your teeth and observe every single of your teeth to inspect for any changes. Once the decay begins to progress toward an infection, the severity of the pain will increase and interfere with the quality of your sleep.


Infection also can occur inside the teeth due to poor hygiene and inappropriate eating behavior. An infection in the tooth or gums can cause throbbing pain, as well as other serious symptoms, including swelling in the face or mouth. In the early stages of gum disease known as gingivitis, some people don’t even notice that they have it. Sensitive teeth and gums can be the sign for gum disease.

Infection usually appears when a person is delaying or does not seek treatment for a large cavity in the tooth, sometimes it can also happen after oral surgery or due to any  injuries in  the mouth. Dental infections will grow and spread rapidly, so they require immediate treatment.

7.Dental Procedures

Patients who undergo any dental procedure like braces or orthodontic treatment, it will cause the teeth to move slowly to the right position. This movement and adjustment will cause you pain and interrupt your eating behavior. Most people might feel throbbing pain at a certain area in the mouth.

This slight pain is common and it is nothing to be worried about because it is not a typical sign of something that dangerous. The pain will slowly decrease as the time goes away. However, if the pain that you feel  is unbearable or does not reduce in a few days, you might need to seek medical attention from your dentist immediately.


Toothache or tooth pain is a common problem in everyone. There may be mild to moderate pain which can be managed in your home. Meanwhile, severe pain which persists for more than a few days and interrupts your daily activity requires a dental check up from a nearby dentist. Other signs and symptoms that may need you to seek care include headaches, pain during chewing, bleeding gums, fever, bad breath, injury or trauma in the mouth, bad taste and so on. Always remember, do not delay any dental treatment when it is necessary. Consult with your dentist about proper dental care and try to implement the advice in your daily life.

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